Scholarship of Teaching & Learning Publications (2010)

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Balfour, R. The Language Learning Journal
38
Title Mind the gaps: Higher Education language Policies, the curriculum, and language research
Abstract What emerges repeatedly in research regarding language choice in South Africa is that people negotiate culture, face and identity through more than one language, and balance the need for modernity and the value of tradition, together with awareness that multiculturalism is normative in South Africa. South African scholarship focusing on bilingualism is also informed by the experiences of other countries in which multilingualism has become a feature of language planning. In South Africa, parents are not blind consumers of hegemonic languages, and learners are not insensitive to the dangers of language attrition or subtractive bilingualism. This paper argues, based on its focus on the gaps between policy intentions, research and practices, for closer collaboration between education sectors (the tertiary, and the primary and secondary) in South Africa to better support the development of multilingualism as envisaged by national and higher education language policy documentation.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Du Plessis,T.
Alternation 17 1
Title A Critical Comparison of Legal Interventions Regarding the Officiality of Languages in Israel and South Africa
Abstract Language legislation is increasingly being accorded a central role in managing language contact, addressing language inequality and language conflict, and legitimising recognised official languages within multilingual settings. In many cases language legislation takes the form of a central language act, such as the Welsh Language Act (1993), while in other cases, primary and secondary language legislation become important legal instruments in regulating official languages. Primary language legislation can take the form of constitutional provisions on language or language provisions in ordinary legislation passed by legislatures. Secondary language legislation can be found in regulations and other measures on language guiding governmental treatment of official languages. However, a further aspect of legal intervention that is not always considered in discussions about language legislation is case law on language. Case law has proved to play a prominent role in correcting tendencies towards the non-implementation of measures to ensure language equality, such as in the instance of Arabic in Israel. A similar situation is found in South Africa where case law complements language legislation in different domains of official language use. This article provides a comparative perspective on language legislation and case law on language as two forms of legal intervention in language officialisation.
Keywords: Language legalisation, case law on language, language policy

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Engelbrecht, C. Shangase N.C, Majeke S.J, Mthembu S.Z & Zondi, M.Z.
Alternation 17 1
Title IsiZulu Terminology Development in Nursing and Midwifery
Abstract The Education White Paper of 1997 on transformation in higher education in South Africa (South Africa 1997) indicated that because of the multilingual nature of the diverse communities in the new democracy, higher education should play a role in the development of all the official languages including the indigenous languages, as well as the Khoi, Nama, San and Sign languages. The School of Nursing of the University of KwaZulu-Natal took this obligation to heart by participating in the SANTED multilingualism project. This emanated from the needs of the student nurses who are being educated and trained in English, but serve in communities where Zulu is the dominant language. To meet the identified student needs, the nursing and midwifery specialists, in collaboration with various language specialists in KwaZulu-Natal, engaged in a process to develop terminology which enhances isiZulu as a scientific language. This article discusses the language policies and multilingual trends, both locally and globally and describes the experiences of the nursing specialists who participated in the terminology development process. The main categories for deriving terms based on the linguistic decisions made by the team are also described, and examples provided. The challenges are outlined and the recommendations include the importance of institutional buy-in at all academic levels and strategies for the sustainability of the project.
Keywords: Terminology development, language development, transformation in higher education, multilingualism, isiZulu, nursing and midwifery, term extraction, indigenous language

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Engelbrecht, C. & Wildsmith, R.
Alternation 17 1
Title Exploring Multilingualism in a Problem-based Learning Setting: Implications for Classroom and Clinical Practice in the Nursing Discipline
Abstract This article reports on work in progress as part of a larger research study into issues around multilingualism in clinical and classroom learning settings in a nursing context. Students in the caring professions in South Africa are increasingly faced with language barriers in the clinical setting. In South Africa, English and Afrikaans were previously used for language services in the public arena as well as in the private sector in a country where the majority of citizens speak an indigenous African language as their home language. Today, fifteen years after the advent of democracy, indigenous languages and knowledge are still marginalized in daily living spheres which can seriously affect efficacy in the workplace. This situation pertains in spite of the decree by the South African Constitution (1996) that multilingualism should be perceived as a national resource. In this article we explore the issues of multilingualism and cultural diversity in a nursing context, in both clinical and classroom settings, with a focus on the strategies educators and supervisors may use in the classroom to overcome communication barriers identified in the clinical setting. This exploration is presented and analysed within a problem-based education workshop context. We ask whether the language issues of a diverse community can be solved by practising multilingualism in the classroom. Preliminary findings point to the possibility of effective use of the indigenous languages in these learning settings.
Keywords: learning environment, experiential learning, multilingualism, problem-based education, nursing, language acquisition, terminology development, medium of instruction

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Engelbrecht, C.,Shangase, N.,Majeke  S.J., Mthembu S.Z & Zondi, Z.M.
Alternation 17 1
Title IsiZulu Terminology Development in Nursing and Midwifery
Abstract The Education White Paper of 1997 on transformation in higher education in South Africa (South Africa 1997) indicated that because of the multilingual nature of the diverse communities in the new democracy, higher education should play a role in the development of all the official languages including the indigenous languages, as well as the Khoi, Nama, San and Sign languages. The School of Nursing of the University of KwaZulu-Natal took this obligation to heart by participating in the SANTED multilingualism project. This emanated from the needs of the student nurses who are being educated and trained in English, but serve in communities where Zulu is the dominant language. To meet the identified student needs, the nursing and midwifery specialists, in collaboration with various language specialists in KwaZulu-Natal, engaged in a process to develop terminology which enhances isiZulu as a scientific language. This article discusses the language policies and multilingual trends, both locally and globally and describes the experiences of the nursing specialists who participated in the terminology development process. The main categories for deriving terms based on the linguistic decisions made by the team are also described, and examples provided. The challenges are outlined and the recommendations include the importance of institutional buy-in at all academic levels and strategies for the sustainability of the project. Keywords: Terminology development, language development, transformation in higher education, multilingualism, isiZulu, nursing and midwifery, term extraction, indigenous language

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Essack, S.Y., Naidoo, I. & Barnes, G.
Higher Education Management and Policy 22 3
Title Government Funding as Leverage for quality teaching and learning: a South Arican perspective
Abstract The South African Higher Education Funding Framework uses funding as a lever to achieve equitable student access, quality teaching and research, and improved student retention and success. Maximising a university subsidy from the national Department of Education necessitates innovative strategies at the pre- and post-student admission stages. This paper describes how the resource base of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal was increased by the Academic Development and Student Support project which enabled the Faculty to meet enrolment targets and increase graduation rates.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Goggin,K., et al.
Alternation 17 1
Title The Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient-reported Outcome Measures for a Clinical Study Involving Traditional Health Providers and Bio-medically Trained Practitioners
Abstract This study reports on the cultural and language translation of measures for use with Zulu speakers in South Africa. The translation process was purposefully used to integrate our diverse 14 person study team by employing Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) strategies. Measures included: the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The translation was made complex by the variation in Zulu dialects across regions and even between two cities only forty-five minutes apart. Carefully conceived translations can simultaneously produce good translations and deepen team members’ understanding of each- other.
Keywords: Translation, outcome measures, CBPR

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Gqaleni, N.
Alternation 17 1
Title Education and development of traditional health practioners in isiZulu to promote their collaboration wiith public health care workers
Abstract The African Union has declared 2001-2010 the Decade of African Traditional Medicine (ATM). This declaration has been supported by a call from the World Health Organization, and the African National Congress, for the integration of ATM into the National Health Care System, in the context that communities are allowed to choose whom to consult for their health care needs. In order to facilitate collaboration between traditional health practitioners (THPs) and public health care workers (HCWs), we have developed a cutting edge project focused on establishing a district health-based collaboration between provincial and local authority clinics and THPs. To achieve this, it was necessary to develop training materials in isiZulu to capacitate THPs to document, monitor and evaluate their interaction with patients, and for the referral of patients to these clinics. The training programme is designed to facilitate a meaningful two-way participation between THPs and the clinics. The original materials were developed in South African English by biomedical practitioners in consultation with THPs. These were then translated into isiZulu for purposes of facilitating understanding, promoting ownership, and direction of the process by THPs. The programme has resulted in the empowerment and commitment of THPs to document their own work in their own language which has a long oral tradition. This has further promoted understanding between THPs and HCWs. Patients can now freely consult THPs and receive health information from them in their own language and, when necessary, be referred to clinics and social workers to access services not rendered by THPs. This process has bridged the gap between the two health systems allayed myths and misconceptions or prejudice each system had about each other that has been a stumbling block to collaboration.
Keywords: traditional health practitioners, public health care workers, collaboration, clinics, training

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Hlongwa,N., Balfour, R., Engelbrecht, C.,  Mkhize, N.
Language Learning Journal 38 3
Title Progress and Challenge for Language Policy implementation at the UKZN. 
Abstract The University of KwaZulu-Natal approved its bilingual language policy in 2006 based on the framework of the National Language Policy for Higher Education of 2002. The guiding principles of this policy suggest that the university develops the use of isiZulu as a language of instruction and communication, in line with recommendations of the Ministerial Committee report, which investigated the development of indigenous African languages as media of instruction in higher education. The implementation of the bilingual policy began in 2008, under the responsibility of the university's language board and faculties. Whilst debates on the policy itself are endless, there are foreseen challenges in its implementation. This is a case of ‘acquisition planning’ as in effect acquisition of isiZulu as a second language will be expected from all the university staff and students. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of these challenges and to identify steps towards language policy implementation.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Kaschula,R.H. & Mostert,A.
Alternation 17 1
Title Towards Enhancing Indigenous Language Acquisition Skills through MMORPGs 
Abstract The growing interest and access to massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) has opened up significant new scope for educational methodologies, from standard language teaching options through to formalising the skills that a ‘player’ develops through their quests and other activities. This scope is extensive and has created numerous opportunities for innovation both within education and the world of work. This is evidenced by the increasing presence of educational establishments in the virtual world, with Second Life being the most popular for conventional educational purposes. In Second Life and many other realms participants are earning some income and in some cases enjoying a reasonable living from online activities, while developing their skills base. These MMORPGs may open opportunities for promoting language acquisition provided this is located within a suitably attractive realm; ‘players’ would then engage in activities that would contribute to their abilities to use the indigenous languages in everyday life. This article explores how such a system could be developed and the likely contribution it could make to promote a multilingual environment at school and post school levels. Further, it will identify the implications for the future of teaching and learning through the harnessing of MMORPGs.
Keywords: massively multiplayer online role- playing games (MMORPGs), electronic gaming, language acquisition, multilingual environment, virtual worlds, teaching and learning, mother tongue , Second Life, World of Warcraft, Entropia.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Kotzé ,E & Hibbert,L.
Alternation 17 1
Title Are Multilingual Education Policies Pipe Dreams? Identifying Prerequisites for Implementation
Abstract Fifteen years after the advent of democracy in SA, in the changeover from a bilingual to a purportedly multilingual dispensation, accompanied by the constitutional recognition of eleven languages, a balance can be drawn up of the extent to which this recognition has been reflected by the implementation of education policies. In spite of empirical research into various aspects of the role played by language in education in this country and proposals aimed at giving effect to the constitutional ideals, a tacit policy of monolingualism has been in evidence. In this article, it will be argued that a social Darwinist. Social Darwinism is a term that applies the linguistic framework of Darwin’s biological theories to the realm of human social relations (Dafler2005:1). Approach has been followed in the handling of language matters in education at large, and that attitudinal factors accordingly play (and will play) a decisive role in effecting a paradigm shift, not only among educational policy makers, but within the minds of all role players. Such a paradigm shift, which is a prerequisite for generating the political will to effectively implement any proposals based on empirical research, can be shown to have taken root in the thinking of political policy makers at the parliamentary level. However, recognition of the realities of language in education is still lacking at the level of implementation. By way of a limited case study, a proposal for such implementation at a tertiary institution is discussed.
Keywords: language policy implementation, higher education, multilingual education, attitudinal factors, pedagogy, multimodality, multilteracies, linguistic Social Darwinism, vernacular, colonial language, language shifts

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Lafon,M.
Alternation 17 1
Title Promoting Social cum Racial Integration in South Africa by Making an  African Language a National Senior Certificate Pass Requirement
Abstract While schooling or formal education has become the main locus of education and training in South Africa, little recognition is given to local African languages in the curriculum. The trend is the so called former Model C schools, which use English as Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT), teach English and Afrikaans as subjects and usually give no significant recognition to the mother tongue s of African learners. It is only in township and rural schools, widely considered as dysfunctional, that African languages may be used as LoLT during the first three years and are taught at meaningful levels for native speakers. Thus, the education system maintains, albeit in a subdued manner, the apartheid-era partition of the society and creates a context prone to the continued exclusion of the marginalised. I argue that making African languages compulsory at the school-end exam would help level the playing fields between black learners and their white counterparts. Furthermore, township and rural schools would be recognised as having some currency to trade, which would contribute in turn to improving their own image. Banking on the linguistic capital of black learners in ‘black’ schools could lead to the phasing-in of symmetrical exchanges between learners from both ends of the educational divide, through bussing and school pairing. Such initiatives would not only contribute to bridging the educational gap and fighting social exclusion, but would also go a long way towards promoting reciprocal knowledge and mutual understanding between youth across racial and social barriers, thus paving the way for a more caring and united society.
Keywords: education, South Africa, language, language in education policy, language policy, transformation

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Madiba,M.
Alternation 17 1
Title Fast-tracking Concept Learning to English as an Additional Language (EAL) Students through Corpus-based Multilingual Glossaries 
Abstract The aim of this article is to discuss the corpus-based Multilingual Concept Glossaries project at the University of Cape Town (UCT) and to show how multilingual glossaries can be used to fast-track concept literacy among English as Additional Language students (EALs). In South Africa, it is an accepted fact that most of EAL students from poor academic and family backgrounds enter higher education with limited English proficiency which makes it difficult for them to learn and understand concepts in different content learning areas (cf. Kapp 1998; Council on Higher Education 2007; National Benchmark Tests Project Progress Report 2009). Thus, the development of the multilingual glossaries is aimed at providing academic support to these students. It is the contention of this article that the development of these glossaries constitutes an important intervention strategy to optimize concepts learning in different areas to EAL students. The pedagogic value of glossaries is widely acknowledged by many scholars in the field of academic literacy (cf. Hüllen 1989; Marzano 2003, 2004; Graves 2006; Beck, McKeown & Kucan 2008; Hiebert & Kamil 2005; Farstrup &Samuels 2008; Sauer 2009). However, as the Project is still in its initial stage, the article mainly provides a conceptual argument based on two theories, namely, the theory of conceptual difficulty (cf. Perkins 2007; 2009), which provides a theoretical framework for analysing EAL students’ conceptual difficulties, and Vygotsky’s socio-cultural constructive theory which provides a framework of pedagogic intervention to fast-track concepts learning.
Keywords: multilingual glossaries, concept, zone of proximal development, Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills, Cognitive/ academic language proficiency, hypermedia

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Maseko,P et al.
Alternation 17 1
Title The Role of the Web in the Promotion of African Languages 
Abstract In this article we explore the possible contribution of the Web in promoting the use and status of African languages. Participation in sharing and producing knowledge through the Web can play a key role in the economic, social and educational development of Africa. While physical access to information is hampered by lack of infrastructure and connectivity, epistemological access is hampered by the use of English. Resources in African languages are available. Until the amount of Web content and the number of users reach critical mass, these resources play a symbolic rather than an instrumental role in promoting African languages. The use of electronic resources available on the Web could contribute to cutting the printing and transport cost of paper material, especially in multilingual settings where many languages would have to be represented. Another practical way in which the Web can promote the development of African languages is to promote communication among their speakers. This is already showing its potential by allowing experts from various disciplines to work collaboratively on the development of new indigenous terminology through mailing lists and chat rooms. On a larger scale, the Web can play a unifying function among speakers of different varieties of the same African language. This is similar to the role radio and TV played for European and, in recent times, for African languages. Improving the status of African languages by increasing their presence on the Web could be seen as a way to counter current attitudes and beliefs, and spear- head a positive cycle of transformation in Africa. Government can play a coordinating and endorsing role, but the initiative needs to come from academic institutions and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). Users need to participate and support such efforts, in spite of the traditional association of African languages with backwardness and low-status domains. The extensive media coverage and participation in events such as translate@thons indicates latent support for the use of African languages in the ICT domain, which needs to be channel led through collaboration between the different sta keholders.
Keywords: African languages, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), web access, information access, educational development, economic empowerment, social transformation, linguistic and cultural diversity

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Mashiya,N.
Alternation 17 1
Title Mother Tongue Teaching at the University of KwaZulu-Natal: Opportunities and Threats
Abstract The paper presents my experiences of teaching Life Skills using isiZulu as the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) to Post-Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students, who were specializing in the Foundation Phase (FP) in 2008 and 2009 at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The aim of the article is to reflect on the opportunities and threats encountered during the implementation process with these two cohorts. During contact sessions, new experiences were recorded and were then analysed and two categories were formed. Under each category themes were developed and experiences were distributed accordingly. The findings demonstrate the opportunities such as increase in vocabulary, good performance and high students’ involvement in class activities. The study indicated time constraints, shortage of expertise and negative attitudes as the threats of using isiZulu as LoLT in higher education. The study also suggests recommendations that would strengthen the initiative.
Keywords: mother tongue, Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT), University (Higher Education), students, opportunities, threats, Foundation

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Mbatha,T. 
Alternation 17 1
Title Putting the End Point at the Beginning: Teachers’ Understanding of Using a Dual Medium Approach for Teaching Literacy in Foundation Phase Classrooms
Abstract This article examines how teachers in selected South African foundation phase (FP) dual medium literacy classrooms understand the teaching of literacy. ‘Putting the end point at the beginning’ summarizes some teachers’ conceptions of how to approach the teaching of literacy. They argue that since the end point is that the child should become literate in English, they should then teach literacy in English earlier than teaching it in the child’s mother tongue. They believe that the earlier literacy in English is taught, the better because children will master it very well whilst they are young. The article argues that there is pedagogical and conceptual confusion in which teachers and parents expect that by initiating the end point at the beginning of schooling, learners will become biliterate in isiZulu and English. This understanding conflicts with the research of first teaching literacy in a language that learners are familiar with before teaching it in an additional language. The problem is the assumption that a dual medium approach to literacy instruction in the foundation phase can be a substitute for teaching literacy in the mother tongue. The core concern of the article is to identify what teachers understand the role and function of mother tongue literacy teaching in the foundation phase to be and to identify teachers’ conceptions and understanding of the reasons for their preference for the dual medium approach in teaching literacy in the foundation phase. The study took an action research approach conducted by post-graduate certificate in Education (PGCE) students in the foundation phase literacy class of 2008. Data was collected by student teachers from teachers practicing in the field by conducting interviews and writing field notes. The interviews were analysed and the findings synthesized showing that teachers were more in favour of an early introduction of literacy in English in the foundation phase without considering the advantages of a mother tongue based bilingual instruction. Teachers were technically in favour of the dual medium approach as long as it would allow them to teach English literacy early to the learners. The article recommends that teacher training for foundation phase teachers should begin with a focus on teaching literacy in the mother tongue in the early years of a learner’s career, since a mother tongue based bilingual education is the best option. A dual medium instruction may be started at any time but should not replace the teaching of literacy in the mother tongue.
Keywords: dual medium, literacy, biliteracy, mother tongue-based bilingual education

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Moodley,D.
Alternation 17 1
Title Bilingualism at the University of KwaZulu-Natal: Staff- and Student Preferences
Abstract This discussion provides an overview of the perceptions and preferences of students and staff regarding language use at UKZN and argues that attitude towards language is the key factor in determining the success of any language policy. Results elicited from a questionnaire survey completed by staff and students are provided. Despite UKZN’s language policy of additive bilingualism, the data goes on to show a preference that the institution should remain a monolingual environment. The discussion ends with a strong call for interventions which could address the problem of the disjuncture between the policy direction and the views of students and staff.
Keywords: Bilingualism, Higher Education, isiZulu, Language Policy

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Ndimande-Hlongwa,N.
Alternation 17 1
Title Corpus Planning, with Specific Reference to the Use of Standard isiZulu in Media
Abstract This article focuses on standardisation, an aspect of corpus planning which is one of the categories of language planning. Corpus planning refers to activities such as coining new terms, reforming spelling, and adopting a new script. It refers, in short, to the creation of new forms, the modification of old ones, or the selection from alternative forms in a spoken or written code. The argument in the article is that whilst the three isiZulu newspapers, namely, Ilanga, Isolezwe, and UMAFRIKA are doing a great job in promoting the use of isiZulu in the media, there are inconsistencies in the way they apply isiZulu orthographical rules. The data used in this article was collected from the three isiZulu newspapers. The words selected in the three newspapers were spelt differently in the different newspapers. The article argues that the three isiZulu newspapers are inconsistent in the application of orthographic rules in isiZulu which can cause problems for the intellectualisation process, which is a strategy for accelerating the growth and development of languages.
Keywords: language planning, corpus planning, standardisation, media, orthography, intellectualisation

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Ndimande-Hlongwa,N.,Mazibuko,G & Gordon,M 
Alternation 17 1
Title The Teaching and Learning of IsiZulu as a Second Language for Professional Purposes at the University of KwaZulu-Natal: A Response to Professional Needs
Abstract The article aims to depict how needs analysis has informed the curriculum design of the discipline specific language courses in Nursing and Psychology at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). It will also demonstrate how isiZulu has been taught as a second language for profession al purposes. The article is an outcome of the initiative of the multilingualism project formally known as the South Africa Norwegian Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED). SANTED is a joint venture of the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD), the Department of Education and several South African Higher Education Institutions. The authors argue that there is a link between language as a resource orientation and the need for UKZN graduates in professional programmes to have communicative competence in isiZulu language. According to the language as a resource orientation which is derived from language ecology, languages are a resource that should be managed, developed, and conserved like any other economic resource as stipulated in the 1996 South African Constitution.
Keywords: Curriculum design, discipline specific courses, isiZulu, language as a resource, language policy, teaching and learning, needs analysis,SANTED

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Ngcobo,M.N & Nomdebevana,N T
Alternation 17 1
Title The Role of Spoken Language Corpora in the Intellectualisation of Indigenous Languages in South Africa 
Abstract South Africa is a multilingual country with eleven official languages. Nine of these official languages are indigenous languages and they are not considered as developed compared to English and Afrikaans. The main cited problem is the lack of appropriate terminology that will enable these languages to be used in modern domains of language use such as science and technology. Term creation for the purpose of modernising the indigenous languages of South Africa falls under a process called intellectualisation. This is a process of accelerating the growth and development of languages. In this article we argue that we need to use spoken corpora of these indigenous languages as a strategy in their intellectualisation. Building large spoken language corpora is regarded as the most important first step in the development of adequate language material and other applications. Apart from being rich sources for varied and significant empirical research in linguistic, cultural and natural language processing domains, language corpora have globally become extremely important data base resources for a variety of linguistic, socio-economic, cultural, educational, inter-lingual or inter-communicational and language technological applications and developments (such as in machine translation and human-machine interactions). The spoken corpus approach allowed us to extract and to observe the nature of borrowed terms used by people in natural communication. We extracted a representative sample from Xhosa and Zulu transcribed spoken corpora and the results showed that there is a significant number of new terms in spoken communication. These terms can be used as the basis for an objective strategy in the planned process of accelerating the growth and development of indigenous languages.
Keywords: spoken language corpus, language development, indigenous languages, intellectual lisation, African Renaissance, South Africa.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Niven, P.M.
Teaching in Higher Education 16 6
Title Intersecting epistemologies: 1st year students in a Political Science Module
Abstract This paper identifies the epistemological values of novice students and their lecturers in terms of a "farming" metaphor. It argues that each occupy essentially different kinds of epistemological "farms", involving different "crops" and "methods", and lecturers often fail to provide effective access to their disciplinary communities because they do not recognise or respond to this fundamental epistemological disjuncture. This issue is explored in relation to a first-level Political Science module in a South African university. Using Discourse Theory as the primary means of interpretation, the project identifies the students' home, community and school-based discourses which construct their values and ideas about learning and knowing and therefore their ways of reading and writing in the academy. The data was collected in four workshops in which the students employed a variety of media to explore their past and current experiences of learning. The multiple perspectives afforded by this mode of data collection generated rich, ethnographic descriptions of the students' social epistemologies. Their values are contrasted with those that may be considered normative in a Social Science like Politics.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 O'Brien, F.
Higher Education 59 2
Title In Pursuit of African Scholarship: Unpacking Engagement
Abstract Engagement between higher education and other societal sectors is a key theme in higher education discourse in South Africa, as it is in other countries. In South Africa, however, engagement has gained additional status as an appropriate strategy for pursuing African Scholarship. On the ground, however, inequitable power relationships and erratic participation have posed serious challenges to the effectiveness and sustainability of engagement initiatives. From the experiences of seven South African academics and the local community members and service-providers with whom they engaged in service-learning, three factors emerged as mediating the power/participation dynamic of their engagement. The impact of these factors, namely, structure, meaning, and place and time, are discussed, leading to the conclusions that scholarly engagement requires ideological and practical support from higher education institutions and further study in South African contexts.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Pillay, A. 
South African Journal of Higher Education
24 5
Title Embracing multiliteracy for teaching and learning in higher education
Abstract Through a review of the literature, this article argues that it is imperative that lecturers at institutions of higher education not just embrace multiliteracy for teaching and learning, but accept, incorporate and affirm the many literacies that students bring with them to the lecture room. Multiliteracy in the lecture room supplements traditional literacy pedagogy but focuses on modes of representation much broader than language alone and uses pedagogies that extend beyond traditional face-to-face teaching environments. This article argues that active learning strategies that embrace and affirm multiliteracies, cultural and linguistic diversity, and multimodal textual practices could create dynamic learning environments that will arm students with the skills required to face a rapidly changing world.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Searle, R, Mckena, S & Harrison, L.
Acta Academia 1
Title I won't be Squeezed into Someone Else's Frame: Narratives of Supervisor Selection
Abstract Using a collection of stories from a group of women who belong to a PhD support group, this article tracks the issue of choosing a supervisor. These women are all academics and therefore had some claim to an “insider” status but as novice researchers they were also “outsiders”. Their discussions around how and why they chose their supervisors highlight issues of ten underplayed or ignored in textbooks on postgraduate supervision. In particular, this article examines issues of knowledge, embodied subjectivity and power by following three questions that arise rom the data: whose knowing is important; who should I be, and whose PhD is it?

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Webb,V. 
Alternation 17 1
Title Afrikaans in Higher Education in S.A
Abstract The main issue dealt with in the article is the case for the retention of Afrikaans as a language of higher education. Given its association with apartheid, the attempts to impose it on black learners in the 1970s, its continuing stigmatisation in many communities and the total loss of political of its white speakers, the question to be asked is whether it should be retained as medium of instruction in higher education in post 1994 democratic South Africa, and, if there are valid reasons in support of its retention in this capacity, what its role should be and how its revitalisation should be handled. Six arguments are presented in support of the maintenance of Afrikaans as an academic language
Keywords: Afrikaans, higher education, language and culture, educational development, educational access and success, equity and parity of esteem, pluralism, community support, language policies for higher education and public debate.

Year Authors  Journal/Book Volume Issue
2010 Wildsmith,R.
Alternation 17 1
Title The Development of a Sustainability Model for the Integration and Use of an African Language as a Language of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education
Abstract This paper discusses the organic development of a Sustainability Model for the implementation of an African language, viz. Zulu, as a language of learning and teaching (LoLT) at tertiary level in a South African University. The model created the conceptual framework for research into and implementation of Zulu as a medium of instruction in selected subject areas at University level. The aim of this project is to promote multilingualism in higher education. It has been funded by the South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development (SANTED) programme. This article traces the initial development of this model, which drew on the findings of various research studies over a period of ten years, culminating in its application to the development of specialist discourse and terminology in Zulu in specific subject areas in the Social Sciences, Health Sciences and Humanities curricula. The project involved the collaboration of various subject specialists in Psychology, Nursing, Dentistry and Education (Foundation Phase level). The implementation has been two-fold: the offering of basic communication skills courses in Zulu for non-Zulu- speaking staff and students involved in the above professional disciplines, and terminology development in the respective disciplines in order to enable the use of Zulu in selected materials and tutorial groups. This SANTED-funded initiative (2006) has been a systematically- planned and deliberate intervention on the part of lecturers and researchers to introduce an African language as a potential LoLT, whilst at the same time contributing to the intellectualisation of the language in question.
Keywords: language acquisition, isiZulu, multilingualism, second language learning, second language teaching, language intellectualisation, language development and promotion, medium of instruction




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